西方道德难题九章

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出版社:山东人民出版社
出版日期:2010-1
ISBN:9787209049979
作者:张桂华
页数:354页

章节摘录

  自20世纪下半叶以来,西方社会有关安乐死问题的争论日趋激烈,这是不难理解的。一方面,安乐死不仅涉及人们的宗教信仰和道德观念,涉及医学伦理,还直接关系到医学实践、关系到千千万万病人的生死选择。另一方面,现代医学技术的进步增进了人类健康,提高了人的寿命,但令人始料未及的是,这一进步在造福人类的同时,却将许多濒临死亡的患者挽留在了生死关口,使以往鲜明的生死界限模糊不清,产生了一个生死难定的中间地带。因此,安乐死逐渐成为西方社会最为关注的问题之一,伦理学、医学、法学以及社会各界人士从各个角度、各种立场出发,对此作了深入探讨和针锋相对的争论。  有关安乐死的道德争论主要涉及两类性质的问题:第一类,人类是否应该实施安乐死?人类有选择自愿死亡的权利吗?安乐死,道德上是否应该?法律上能否允许?第二类问题是在第一类问题基础上提出的,如果可以实施安乐死,如果可以接受自愿且自我实行的安乐死,那由他人实施的安乐死也同样应该或可以接受吗?停止治疗、任由病人死亡的消极安乐死可以接受,由他人注射直接致死药物的积极安乐死也可以接受吗?这不等于变相的杀人?后一类问题关注的是安乐死的实施方式,即任由死亡和直接致死,或消极安乐死和积极安乐死,两者之间在道德上是否存在着重大区别?两类问题中,前者抽象而后者具体,前者牵涉到更为基本的道德理论、法学理论以及宗教原理,诸如人的自由,人的权利,人类是否可分享一部分上帝对生死的决定权等等;后者虽然与此不无相关,但与医学伦理结合得更为紧密,也主要由医学实践中的依据来加以阐明和论证。  安乐死的争论之所以激烈,源于各种观点背后所依据的基本道德原则的差异,这些原则包括生命保护原则、避免痛苦原则或生命质量原则、自由权利原则和道德自主自律原则等。有人认定保护生命是首要原则,否认任何形式的安乐死。可问题是,涉及安乐死,生命保护不是我们唯一需要关注的原则,其他几个原则也需要考虑。比如,避免痛苦是人类生活中最常见、也是人们竭力要避免的一种状况。一般来说,提升生活质量、追求幸福几乎就是人生的全部目的。因此,当一个人丧失了追求幸福的能力,他还应该继续存活下去吗?还有,道德自律就是将任何正常人假设为能考虑道德问题并决定如何行动的主体,有许多时候,作为人的特殊意义恰恰就因为具有这种能力,那么,作为道德自律的主体,我们是否能根据自己的道德判断被赋予任何行动的自由呢?对于人作为道德主体的尊重,需要每一个人都被给予行动的自由,虽然作为道德自律的主体,我们就不可能拥有无限的行动自由,但如果这一自由仅仅涉及自我的生死选择,我们有选择死亡的权利吗?  这些原则如果分别加以考虑,安乐死就不会有任何问题。假如保护生命原则是我们需要尊重的唯一原则,那安乐死在任何情况下都是错误的,因为它的结果就是生命的死亡。假如避免痛苦、追求幸福的原则至高无上,只要结束一个人的生命就能够有效地终止其辗转病床的痛苦,安乐死在道德上就是可接受的。假如自律原则最值得尊重,人有选择自己生死的权利,那么,尊重某个人终结自己生命的请求也就有充分的道德理由,只要他是作为自律的道德主体提出这一请求。可令人烦恼的是,在安乐死问题上,必然会同时涉及几个原则、至少两个原则,而在具体情景中,所有这几个互有冲突的原则都被认为是值得尊重的,其背后都有坚实的依据,无法排出优先次序。这就迫使人们必须作出选择,或坚持一个原则,或在几个原则中作调和,或者将基本原则的原有含义加以扩展和补充。  经过半个世纪以来的进展,当今西方社会,肯定和赞成安乐死的一派显然愈来愈占上风。这首先反映在有关安乐死的道德争论上,更重要的是,体现在近年来的医疗机构实施的各种措施,患者对安乐死的态度,尤其是对安乐死的立法和司法实践中。这是一个正常的、也是合理的过程。争论源于社会实践,理论的进展反转来又推动着社会实践的发展。最初由民间组织的提议,逐步过渡到具体案例的法院裁定,最后由国家制定法律文件加以认可。2002年,荷兰通过对安乐死的正式立法,成为世界上第一个承认安乐死合法的国家。

书籍目录

前言第一章 安乐死第二章 堕胎第三章 性骚扰第四章 色情文学第五章 原住民的权利第六章 环境保护第七章 人道主义国际援助第八章 死刑第九章 恐怖主义、战争和人道主义干预

前言

  如果说,西方的今天就是我们的明天,那肯定是荒唐的预期;但说西方目前的问题很可能是我们不久将面临的问题,那恐怕就离事实不远了。  因为,有些问题已在中国出现和正在出现,并愈来愈显示出相似的社会反应和应对趋向。  比如安乐死,比如性骚扰,这些20年前闻所未闻的名词,今天已成为中国公众时常议论的话题,并正试图进入相关的立法程序。环境保护,虽然在经济增长的方式上、在工业制造排放污水废气的具体指标上,中国以及其他发展中国家与西方发达国家之间还存在分歧,但保护环境的基本理念:我们共有一个地球、爱护人类的家园、保护濒临灭绝的珍稀动物、保存不可再生资源等等,则已渐渐成为中国公众的共识和规范。又如恐怖主义,原来似乎极其遥远以至于可作壁上观的远景,现在也逼近和降临到身边,成为我们不得不认真应付的现实威胁。  中国和西方存在着传统意识形态分歧,在伦理思想、道德原则上有着直接间接的冲突。可事情还有另一面。我们应该看到,冲突和分歧之外,还有共识和融合,基本原则之外,还有更为普适化的道德准则和道德规范,还有人类共同和共通的道德良心和人道情怀。这种种构成了人类道德文化的“黄金储备”,也构成了人类交往中所必需的道德背景和联结基础。自冷战以后,以往几乎隔绝的东方和西方走到了一起,全球各国和整个人类共同致力于和平与发展的前景。在经济全球化、一体化大背景下,世界各国从未有过如今天这样紧密相连、休戚相关。西方发达国家已完成了工业化和现代化,中国和其他发展中国家正在努力工业化和实现现代化。同样性质、相似结构的经济增长和社会发展,虽有先后快慢之分,但所要经历的路径和最终指向却无甚差别,因此,无可避免,中国也就将面对西方已发生过的同样的难题和困境。

内容概要

  张桂华   学者,作家。现任教于上海应用技术学院。有各类著述几百万字。主要著作有:《怎样讲道理》、《胡兰成传》,主要论文有:《从理论特点看存在主义在青年中的传播和影响》、《道德对科学的误解》、《一个未发生应有作用的思想家顾准》、《在国家利益之上》、《一个阶层的历史命运》等。

作者简介

当代西方,社会公众关注的道德问题很多,但《西方道德难题九章》所选仅基于中国现实,两者有重合,却不尽相同。《西方道德难题九章》所选问题,一是我们社会也已出现或已现端倪的,如安乐死、性骚扰和死刑。二是同样性质却多少是以不同形式、不同意义出现的问题,如环境保护,我们虽然也注重,可我们注重的仅及于人类自身,而不同于西方将其扩展到人类的未来一代,扩展到自然界中的动物和植物。三是我们完全陌生、从不认为是问题的问题,如人道主义国际援助,如原住民。  
对于每一问题的意见的采择,作者奉行的也是西方同类书籍执行的几个标准。其一,每一问题讨论或争论中最有影响的意见。其二,意见尽可能采自社会各个层面、各个领域。其三,选取意见尽可能完全和平衡,既选择正面赞成的,也选择负面反对的,既有出自传统自由主义、保守主义立场的,也有新近出现的女权主义者、环保主义者的看法。

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精彩书评 (总计1条)

  •     Book Review of NINE MORAL DILEMMAS IN WESTERN WORLDAt the beginning of this semester, I came across a book called Nine Moral Dilemmas in Western World in the library of our college. It’s written by a Chinese University teacher, and was published just in 2010. I’m quite interested in moral topics, since in the past I’ve read several books and watched some movies about modern moral principles with its related social problems and personal suffering. Besides, the word dilemma is compelling: under this word there would be deep and critical thinking, reflexing, serious discussion and careful weighting.I spend a week to read it through in my leisure time. It seems that the content of the book is more like excerpts and adaptation of a book called CONTEMPORARY MORAL PROBLEMS, INTERNATIONAL EDITION by James White. Moreover, the author just put forward nine moral issues that are comparatively common between the western culture and our country. Though the analysis and discussions of those problems were from different angles, and present lots of information, such as the results of latest social polls, data of newest scientific researches, the author didn’t provide readers any satisfactory solution. Then does it make sense, that we Chinese still read it and think through those unresolved moral dilemmas in western world? The answer is positive. As the author said in the preface of his book, he picked up the common moral issues, which exist both in the west and in China. Therefore, as far as I deem, it is necessary for us to look into these dilemmas, with exactly the same reason why we learn history not only of our own country but also of other countries, other areas and other cultures. We could gain experiences and find our new way to go further from the history of Western ethics.The nine moral topics include abortion, euthanasia, capital punishment, terrorism and so on. Some of them are long-term problems, but a larger part is up-to-date collection of contemporary moral issues. When I was reading it, a thought occurred to me: when we Chinese are busy dealing with the domestic food safty problems, the soaring prices of housing estates and necessities as well as other urgent and severe social problems, the westerners already began their violent debation on moral grounds. For instance, the perspectives that most of us Chinese are holding are not objective enough to the following issues: the rights of homosexuals, the moral and humain meanings of economics during the discussion of how to progress the sustainable development and environmental protection, which is highly irresponsible. Most of people even hold an indifferent attitude. That’s not right. The moral dilemmas are universal, and, as a result, we really should care about it, pay more attention to it, and most importantly, try hard to solve it not only for ourselves, but for the wellbeing of the following generations. The first chapter of the book left me the deepest impression and provide me further and richer understanding of this moral issue. It mainly talks about whether euthanasia should be allowed to implement. After finished reading this chapter, I drew a conclusion that the main reason why it is so so hard for westerners to accept euthanasia both morally and legally is that their moral principles are largely based on their religious believes. When we Chinese considering this issue, most of we will not relate it to the Will of God, but come to more practical and vital problems such as ‘Do people really have their free choice to die?’, or ‘What’s more important to an individual: the quality of life, or the length of his or her life?’ However, in the west people may argue that the euthanasia is totally evil, for it is against the God. That is to say, the religious elements will be the thickest and highest wall blocking the progress of solving this problem. My opinion upon euthanasia is that we should agree on it. I don’t think it is a bad thing. Some patients are really suffering. Their diseases can not be cure, and they live a life like hell. Futhermore, their families and friends are also suffering. If a patient under this kind of circumstances has strong will to go, why we must keep him or her there in the hospital waiting for the final day, which may be more painful and even horrible? People have no right to choose their birth, but I think we should be given the rights to choose our death under certain circumstances. This is my rough feeling after reading the book NINE MORAL DILEMMAS IN WESTERN WORLD, and I highly recommand you to take a look at it. Though it lacks of methods to solve those problems, you will still find lots of meaningful information and facts in it, which can trigger your interest to concern more about these contemporary moral issues.

精彩短评 (总计11条)

  •     道德的基础在哪?个人权利和义务的界限在哪?物质的改善,视野的开阔,概念的延伸,原有道德的边界已经不在。无限的道德终究只是美好,追求做个有道德的人,不如先做个填饱肚子的人。
  •     1.好几处很有启发;2.引论别人的内容很多。
  •     虽然简直就是一本对Contemporary Moral Issues的翻译 许多问题仅讨论不解决 挠挠痒 还没挠到地方 但提供了思考的参考 通读完还是颇有收获的
  •     在我看来这书挺好的,既提供了一个正确的思考辩论方法,又直白易读。当然,这也是我第一本正了八经读的哲学类书籍,开启了一道大门
  •     门外社会多么复杂 自我眼光多么短浅
  •     有没有作者自己的观点不知道,不过列举不少相对的观点,把问题说清了。最后,伦理就是一个闹眼子的东西。
  •     西方两字实神来之笔。
  •     还算浅显。
  •     基本辩证入门。{N
  •     对于所选的九个专题都有比较详尽的分析的介绍,然而此书只能作为介绍性的读物,作者自身的观点从头到尾不见踪影,至多是每章收尾时几句不痛不痒的中立总结。 书中的每个dilemma都能作为辩题= =||
  •     入门够深入
 

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